Como construir um porta-aviões

E falando em poder naval, muito interessante o artigo que segue…

Impressionante os 11 porta-aviões estadunidenses! Não é à toa que marinha dos EUA é a maior força armada do globo! Os russos têm um só! E na lista esqueceram de citar nosso glorioso São Paulo! Será que é porque não temos aviões nele?

Quando vejo uma coisa dessas, só me lembro quão vergonhoso foi a história da caravela réplica da de Cabral que não conseguimos construir para os 500 anos!

Bom, navegar é preciso, anyway…

Aircraft carrier: A mind-boggling building job

Infographic showing the block construction of the Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier
 
By Chris Summers BBC News
 
In a shipyard in Scotland the future of the Royal Navy is slowly taking shape. But the construction of the aircraft carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth is a mammoth task.

Imagine an aircraft carrier as a 65,000-tonne jigsaw puzzle and you have got a good idea of the scale of the building of HMS Queen Elizabeth.

The pieces are being built at six shipyards around the UK and will be slotted together at Rosyth in Fife using an enormous crane which was transported by sea from China.

Around 10,000 workers across Britain are employed on the £5bn project with up to 25,000 engaged in building components for the Lockheed Martin F-35 aircraft.

The carrier will have between 12 and 40 F-35s, or Joint Strike Fighters, costing around £65m each.

The world’s carriers

  • US: 11, with one under construction
  • Russia: One, the Admiral Kuznetsov
  • UK: One, HMS Illustrious which only carries helicopters – two under construction
  • China: None but is thought to be building several
  • France: One, the Charles de Gaulle
  • India: One, the Viraat, formerly known as HMS Hermes, but converting another, the Admiral Gorshkov, into the Vikramaditya. A third is under construction
  • Italy: Two, the Giuseppe Garibaldi and the Cavour

“It’s the biggest shipbuilding project for the Royal Navy ever and is second only in engineering terms to the Olympics,” says the man in charge of the whole project, David Downs, engineering director with the Aircraft Carrier Alliance (ACA) consortium.

“All my nights are sleepless, worrying about it,” he jokes.

The Queen Elizabeth and sister ship Prince of Wales will be far bigger than the Ark Royal but still significantly smaller than US equivalents.

Downs and his team designed the ships using computer software – every inch mapped out electronically with laser-guided measurements which ensure each part fits together.

Uniquely, a team of assessors from Lloyd’s Register are on hand at all the yards to check the work as it proceeds.

Explore the zoomable image below to see how a QE Class aircraft carrier (left) would compare in dry dock alongside HMS Illustrious.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

BAE Systems is part of ACA and at its Govan yard in Glasgow, integrated work teams manager David Thomas gives a tour around one huge segment of the ship.

HMS Hermes and HMS Argus at Spithead review in 1924 Things have changed – in 1924 the Navy’s aircraft carriers were converted ships

Clambering under the hulk, wearing only a hard hat for protection, it’s hard not to think of what would happen if the frame holding up 14,000 tons of steel gave way. But Thomas is reassuring on the yard’s safety record.

He has been supervising the insertion of some of the 450 prefabricated cabins and 150 shower rooms – made by a firm on Teesside – in the ship’s innards. He carries with him a small manual showing where everything fitted.

Anyone who finds the instructions to flatpack furniture a challenge would find it mind-boggling.

The whole process starts with the arrival of huge sheets of steel. They are “burned” into various shapes and sizes – some of them quite small – which are welded into position.

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The scale of it

  • 65,000 tonnes at full displacement
  • 1.5 million square metres of paintwork
  • 33 tonnes – weight of propellers
  • 25 knots top speed

Gradually the sections become bigger as deck after deck is welded together.

One of the Govan team is Lyn Gordon, 23, an apprentice fabricator and one of a number of women working on the project.

“My fascination with shipbuilding came from living on the Clyde,” she says. “I realise that it will eventually be an aircraft carrier and I will get to see it turning from a sheet of a metal, to a component, to HMS Queen Elizabeth.”

The first segment from Govan should be ready this summer and will be towed by barge, around the northern tip of Scotland, to Rosyth.

Part of the bow at Rosyth This piece, less than 1% of the entire ship, was brought to Scotland from Devon by barge

At Rosyth the dry dock is ready for the assembly process. Last month the crane arrived from Shanghai, having squeezed under the Forth Bridge at low tide.

Rosyth has List X status, meaning everyone working there has to be security cleared, including the 50 Chinese workers who are helping to erect the 93m crane.

The first piece of steel was cut in 2009 but HMS Queen Elizabeth will not be finished until 2016 at the earliest, and may not be ready for action until 2020.

The construction of her sister ship, the HMS Prince of Wales, will overlap and the current plan is for one of them to be operational while the other would be kept in “extended readiness”.

With the Ark Royal’s fleet of Harrier jump jets being decommissioned the Navy will be without carrier-based planes for almost a decade.

Recent events in Libya have showed the importance of mobile air power.

Scene from Rosyth The dry dock at Rosyth where the ship will be assembled, with the giant crane in the background

The MoD complicated matters in October when it decided, in the Strategic Defence Review, to fit the carriers with catapults and arrester wires.

The “cats and traps” will enable them to fly the carrier variant F-35 and will also enable US and French jets to land on the deck. But it will also delay the completion of the carriers.

“If they get the two ships in the form they are expected they will be enormously capable ships. It’s like having a piece of Britain you can place anywhere in the world,” says naval historian Nick Hewitt.

Aircraft carriers are arguably the ultimate symbol of military prestige, a mobile projection of military might.

BAE worker Lyn Gordon Lyn Gordon is proud of Clydeside’s shipbuilding heritage

The Royal Navy pioneered carriers, explains Hewitt, head of attractions and collections at the Portsmouth Naval Base Property Trust. The first carriers were converted ships like the 7,500 ton Ark Royal, whose biplanes first saw action in February 1915 against the Turks in the Dardanelles.

Since the 1930s, US carriers have dwarfed their British allies, Hewitt notes.

“The US carriers were designed for the Pacific and to be away from base indefinitely. The British carriers were designed to operate in the North Sea, the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic or from bases in Singapore or India.”

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Shipbuilding jargon

  • Black trades – welders and burners
  • Caulkers – people who grind and buff the welded metal to make it watertight
  • Bulkhead – a steel wall within the ship, which can be sealed. Designed to prevent sinking if ship is hit
  • Sponson – a structure which juts out from the side of the carrier deck
  • Wet space – shower room, usually prefabricated and hoisted into place
  • Lockout – components which are included as part of the building programme

HMS Invincible, which fought in the Falklands, and HMS Ark Royal, which was recently pensioned off, weighed in at a puny 22,000 tons compared to the American carriers such as the USS George H W Bush, at 101,000 tons. The QE Class weighs in in between – at 65,000 tonnes full displacement.

When it is finally ready the Queen Elizabeth will only be able to navigate the Forth Bridge and reach the open sea by waiting for low tide, and even then they will have to retract the radar masts.

The project has had its critics.

The former deputy chairman of Babcock – which is part of the ACA – Lord Hesketh resigned in November after describing the project as a “disaster”.

He told the BBC the carriers could have been built for a fraction of the cost at a shipyard in South Korea and claims the project only went ahead in its present form because of the number of jobs it preserved.

But whatever the controversy over the carriers and the cost, the effort involved will be phenomenal.

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3 respostas para Como construir um porta-aviões

  1. Antonio disse:

    O BRASIL Tem Sim AVIOES no PORTA-AVIOES SAO PAULO!
    Temos um esquadrao de Avioes A-4 Skyhaws,que estao sendo totalmente Modernizados Pela Embraer,com Avionica Totalmente Digital!
    Estes avioes sao muito bons,Super manobraveis e com poder belicos se bem armados e pilotados!
    Alias o porta Avioes sao paulo,foi Totalmente reformado,ficou quatro Anos Em reforma e esta em otimas condicoes!
    Quanto ao fato da Marinha Americana(U.S NAVY),ter (10)dez Porta-Avioes Nucleares,nao Podemos esquecer o fato(Ao Contrario do que Muitos Pensao)eles podem serem Afundados Com a maior facilidade hoje em Dia!
    Os RUSSOS tem um Missil Chamado RADUGA-KRIPTOL,(A INDIA Construiu uma Versao chamada de BRAHMOS com ajuda da propia RUSSIA),este missil balistico tem alcançe de 250KM”s e voam a uma velocidade de 3000KMhttp://br.peeplo.com/search/?q=jets&type=web&from=adg2/h,totalmente Supersonico,com isso os sistemas de defezas destes navios,Simplesmente nao conseguem acompanha este PROJETIL e Abate-lo!
    So para uma comparaçao,os Misseis FRANCESES(O BRASIL USA ELES)EXOCET,os AMERICANOS HARPON,O INGLES “SEA STUKA”Nao voam mais de 850KM”s por Ora,sao subsonicos e faceis de derrubarem!
    Portanto,Precisa apenas uma Esquadrilha de Poderosos Avioes de Caças Russos(Sukhoi,Mig”s,Bombardeiros Tupolev”s) para Afundarem Uma FROTA inteira de Porta Avioes e navios de Guerra!
    Para nao Falar No Novissimo Missil De longo Alcançe(1500KM”s) CHINES,ele pode Afundar um Navio de gerra(PORTA-AVIOES) em Minutos.
    Outra COIsa,a RUSSIA so tem sim um PORTA_AVIOES,mas eçles tem uma FORÇA AEREA que e a mais bem equipada do Mundo,E Tambem Eles Tem A Maior FROTA DE SUBMARINOS NUCLEARES(GIGANTESCOS)do Planetae isso Deixa os AMERICANOS De Cabelos Em PE!
    ENTAO,esta na hora de muita Gente ficar escrevendo coisas sem saber o que REALMENTE Acontece no Mundo!
    INfelismente a imprensa de Varios Paises(O NOSSO TAMBEM)sao super preconceituosos e PUXAS-SACOS das Super potençias e nao esplicao que paralelo a este PODERIO que eles tem,existem paises que Dominao tecnologias que podem CONTRAPOR Tudo isso!
    Grato pela oportunidade de poder falar sobre estes temas que tanto gosto.

  2. luciano cassemiro disse:

    nooooooooooooosa muito loko mas legal valeu

  3. Rui de Sousa Lemos disse:

    Concordo com você Antônio,a imprensa só fala dos Estados Unidos…eles isso,eles aquilo…acabou o tempo dos Estados Unidos serea a unica superpotência do mundo,juntantamente com seus aliados da OTAN…o mundo não é mais unipolar é multipolar.Se eles tem seus porta-aviões, o BRICS,também tem seus porta-aviões,e mísseis navais hipersônicos para destruílos…já o nosso porta-avíões o A12 SÃO PAULO,está mesmo em ótimas condições,e vai receber logo,logo uma aviação moderna,caças AF-1M,modernizados,aviões radares S2-G TRACKER modenizados,helicópteros BLACKHOLCK navais novos,helicópreros de assalto EC 725 SUPER PUMAS NOVOS,alem de helicópteos de escolta ESQUILO…não é novo,mas vai dar conta do recado,mas quem disse que os porta-aviões americanos são todos novos!!!Alguns foram construídos na década de 60,70,80…o que importa em návio não é seu tempo de fabricação é sua tecnologia,que tem que passar por constantes modernizações…exemplo disso,é o ENCOURAÇADO MISSOURI,que seviu a Marinha Americana durante 70 anos…participou da 1ª e 2ª Guerra Mundial,Guerra da Coréia,Guerra do Vietinam,da Guerra do Golfo e se não me engano até da guerra da Bósnia!O A12 São Paulo,pode durar ainda uns 20 anos seguramente,basta ser sempre modernizado…

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